The Hero's Journey is a concept developed by the mythologist Joseph Campbell in his book "The Hero with a Thousand Faces." In this work, Campbell explores the idea that myths and stories from different cultures around the world share a common narrative structure, which he calls the monomyth. The monomyth, or hero's journey, consists of a series of stages that the hero must go through in order to complete their quest. It describes the journey of a hero who embarks on a quest, faces challenges and temptations, and ultimately triumphs over adversity.
According to Campbell, the hero's journey follows a pattern of separation, initiation, and return. The hero leaves their ordinary world and enters a special world, where they face challenges and undergo a transformation. They then return to the ordinary world, bringing back with them the knowledge and power gained during their journey.
Campbell's work on the hero's journey has had a significant influence on modern storytelling and has been widely studied and analyzed in fields such as literature, psychology, and anthropology. In addition to "The Hero with a Thousand Faces," Campbell also wrote several other books on myth and storytelling, including "The Power of Myth" and "The Inner Reaches of Outer Space."
The hero's journey can be divided into a series of steps or stages, which may vary slightly depending on the specific story or myth.
One common version of the hero's journey includes the following steps:
The Call to Adventure: The hero is presented with a challenge or an opportunity to embark on a journey. This may be a direct call, such as a request for help or a prophecy, or it may be more subtle, such as a feeling of restlessness or dissatisfaction with the hero's current situation.
The Refusal of the Call: The hero initially resists the call to adventure, often due to fear, hesitation, or a sense of obligation to their current life.
The Meeting with the Mentor: The hero meets a wise and experienced guide who helps them prepare for their journey and offers advice and encouragement.
Crossing the Threshold: The hero makes the decision to leave their ordinary world and embark on the journey. This may involve physically crossing a boundary or entering a new realm, or it may be more metaphorical.
Tests, Allies, and Enemies: The hero encounters various challenges and meets both allies and enemies along the way. These may include physical tests, such as battles or puzzles, as well as psychological tests, such as temptations or moral dilemmas.
Approach to the Inmost Cave: The hero approaches the central challenge or crisis of the journey, which is often represented by a metaphorical "cave" or other perilous place.
The Ordeal: The hero confronts the central challenge and faces their greatest fear or enemy. This may involve a physical battle, a moral dilemma, or some other form of test.
The Reward: The hero triumphs over the challenge and receives a reward or treasure for their efforts. This may be a physical object, such as a magical weapon or a valuable piece of knowledge, or it may be a more abstract reward, such as inner peace or self-knowledge.
The Road Back: The hero begins the journey back home, often facing new challenges and tests along the way.
The Return: The hero returns home, often changed or transformed by their journey. They may be hailed as a hero or must confront the challenges of integrating their new knowledge and skills into their ordinary life.
Examples of the hero's journey can be found in many stories and myths, including the Greek myth of Persephone, the Native American legend of the hero twins, and the Star Wars trilogy. The hero's journey is often used as a framework for storytelling and has been studied and analyzed by scholars in fields such as literature, psychology, and anthropology.
Other resources for learning more about the hero's journey include:
The Hero's Journey: A Handbook for Life's Journey by Maureen Murdock, which explores the hero's journey as a framework for personal growth and development.
The Hero's Journey: A Guide to the Journey of the Self by Jean Houston, which uses the hero's journey as a model for understanding the psychological and spiritual aspects of the self.
The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell, which is a classic work on the hero's journey and the monomyth.
The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers by Christopher Vogler, which uses the hero's journey as a framework for writing and storytelling.